17.2.1 Feasibility of Solar Panels
Feasibility of Solar Panels
Jennifer S. Woodson - Mississippi State University

Solar energy is a cleaner, but more expensive option than producing energy using fossil fuels. However, research and development of solar energy efficiency is rapidly evolving. Although requiring an initial high capital cost; the payback may only be a few years (dependent upon the location of installation). Solar cells manufactured today are expected to last at least 25 years. Solar cells now have the ability to be quite profitable as well as positively impact the environment.

This paper will evaluate both the financial and environmental impact of solar cell use. Financially there are U.S. federal tax credits, renewable energy credits and carbon credits that can improve solar energy profitability. Environmentally, there are both benefits and drawbacks to each option. What is the best use for cleared land? This paper investigates various agricultural options, timber options, and solar panels options for cleared land in the south-eastern United States.

In 2016 the Paris Agreement was signed and ratified by the United States. The Paris Agreement is a United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) agreement with the goal of maintaining the increase in global temperature to less than 2°C (in the past 100 years the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has reported the global temperature increase by 0.85°C. There is much scientific dispute on what is responsible for the increase in temperature. Perhaps it is natural? Perhaps it is the cause of carbon emissions? Regardless of the cause, The Paris Agreement is going to force business’ producing carbon emissions to scale back on their carbon emissions. One of the largest sectors with high carbon emissions are coal-fired power plants. However, this is currently the cheapest producer of electricity. If power companies are required to meet tighter carbon emission standards, the cost of electricity will significantly increase.
Last updated: 2017-05-05

17.2.2 CFD Simulation to Improve Cooling Pond Performance
CFD Simulation to Improve Cooling Pond Performance
Andrew Nuyianes, Angelo Stamatiou, Debbie Stetka, Jianping Zhang
Hatch Ltd

Cooling ponds are used in the phosphate and mining industries to provide relatively adaptable and low energy cost solutions. The performance of these ponds may be affected due to improper design and control. To optimize pond design and management, a comprehensive three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model has been developed. The model accounts for all the heat transfer mechanisms including solar radiation, evaporation, conduction and convection.

A full-scale case study is presented for a cooling pond in a phosphate fertilizer facility. A base CFD model was developed to investigate the flow field and temperature profiles in the pond under selected operating conditions. The results suggest that once the base case model has been developed, the CFD pond model can be very powerful in troubleshooting the operating issues of the existing pond and quantifying the key factors affecting the pond heat transfer.
Last updated: 2017-05-05

17.2.3 Fuming Acids Spill Mitigation Training
Fuming Acids Spill Mitigation Training
Mark Salzbrenner, & Brad Van Scoik - VEOLIA NORTH AMERICA

Fuming sulfur-based acids (sulfur trioxide, oleums and chlorosulfonic acid) are essential chemicals to today’s society. If handled properly, they are relatively easy chemicals to transport and store. If not, and are they are released to the environment, they can create very visible (and hazardous) fumes (dense white acid mist clouds) at low concentrations.

As part of Veolia NA’s Product Stewardship program for the Fuming Acids, we offered training on Fuming Acids Spill Mitigation at the DOE's HazMat Spill Center in Mercury, Nevada in May 2016. Customers, transporters, mutual aid responders and local community HazMat teams were invited to participate in one-week long training sessions. In these “hands-on” sessions the participants responded to “live” spills of the Fuming Acids and taught how to mitigate the ensuing “white cloud”. The hands-on participants donned Level A full-acid training suits with breathing air and mitigated the spill with either water spray, foam or dry-chemicals. The objectives of the training were:
• Train in mitigation technology and visually compare the mitigation techniques
• Witness fume clouds which result from the release of the fuming acids
• Reinforce the importance of keeping the acids properly contained
• Enhance emergency preparedness
• Test new mitigation techniques and/or equipment.

In addition we tested a number of “new” foams for their efficacy on fume mitigation. The foam manufacturers are required to eliminate the “traditional” C-8 foams by the end of 2016 and replace them with C-6 foams for environmental concerns.

Last updated: 2017-05-05

17.2.4 Umm Wa'al Phosphate Project - Sulfuric Plants
Umm Wa'al Phosphate Project - Sulfuric Plants
Daniel Freeman - SNC Lavalin

SNCL’s portion of the project consisted of:
3 x sulfur burning Sulphuric Acid Plants each producing 5050 MTPD ( of 100% H2SO4) at 98.5% H2SO4 and 261 tph steam at 65 barg and 500 °C
1 x Auxiliary Boiler producing 270 tph steam at 63.5 barg and 495 °C
2 x Steam Turbo-Generators each producing 74 MW of electricity, mainly for export.

The project presented several challenges:
Timeframe –very tight, from engineering, through to commissioning.
Location –arid, dry climate –limited water available. Recycle/reuse necessary.
Size –the sheer size of the plant challenged our engineering group to come up with some novel solutions. The dry gas equipment, and the Converter especially required some new thinking. The large free-span areas and gas distribution presented problems to be solved.
Commissioning -the 3 SAPs and an Auxiliary Boiler are all able to provide steam to the STGs, and also to the LP steam users elsewhere at PAP and sulphur heating etc. The complexity of the steam pipe layout made the commissioning a challenge.

Last updated: 2017-05-05

17.2.5 What To Do When You Run Out of Blower
What To Do When You Run Out of Blower
John Horne - MECS / DuPont

When constructing a new acid plant, overall plant rate can be adjusted by examining different blower sizing. After the plant is built, blower characteristics are no longer a variable; they are a constraint. As plants inevitably aspire to achieve higher and higher production rates, it is common for the blower to become the limiting factor. Seemingly at this point, the plant has “run out of blower.”

This paper will examine precisely this situation. What options do plant owners and operators have when they need more capacity, but must face the reality associated with limited blower capacity? Specifically, this paper deconstructs the acid plant from front to back and examines options for releasing additional capacity by reducing gas side pressure drop without changing out the blower. Real cases are studied and hard data is presented to show the relative costs, benefits, and other impacts associated with various solutions to the classic challenge of increasing production targets with a fixed blower design.
Last updated: 2017-05-05

17.2.6 Application Benefits of Safety Integrity Level Gas Detection Instruments
Application Benefits of Safety Integrity Level Gas Detection Instruments
Steve Phelps - Sensidyne

Phosphate chemical processing has always been considered as having the potential for a hazardous release of toxic gases which could cause personnel injury or loss of production and even off-site consequences. To reduce this risk, certified Safety Integrity Level gas detection instruments are being applied to identify hazardous gas leaks quickly and correctly. The timely warning of a potentially hazardous condition to process and personnel provides time for mitigation, unit evacuation or shutdown before a catastrophic event can occur.

This paper examines the application benefits of SIL certification to IEC 61508 for enhanced reliability, risk reduction and safety instrumented systems. A discussion of gas sensor predictive failure, gas sensor performance certification and the unique Intrinsic Safety approval of the gas sensor interface is also provided. Toxic endpoints are defined and an example for Ammonia is given with regard to off-site consequences.
Last updated: 2017-05-05

17.2.7 Increasing Recovery in Reverse Flotation
Increasing Recovery in Reverse Flotation
Kevin O’Brien, Jianjun Liu, Paul Wiatr, Nalco Water

The effects of a new reagent for the phosphate industry reverse flotation process were examined in the laboratory. Reagents including collectors and depressants have been widely studied for the flotation of gangue from phosphate containing minerals (apatite). Nalco Water has studied the performance of a new reagent which helps to depress the apatite and improve the efficacy of flotation separation. Laboratory test work was conducted in accord with statistical design of experiments to study the effects of phosphoric acid depressant and the new reagent on concentrate grade and recovery from reverse flotation. Experimental results indicate that the addition of this new reagent can increase phosphate recovery by as much as 3% with no decline in concentrate grade. Additionally, application of this new reagent decreases the need for phosphoric acid, used as a depressant, by as much as 50%.

The relationships between the flotation reagents and how changes in dose ratio affect recovery and grade are detailed herein. These relationships were then used to create several business scenarios that highlight the potential benefits to the phosphate industry. This Nalco Water reagent provides a new tool which can be used to maximize recovery and increase profitability.

Last updated: 2017-05-05

17.2.8 Use of Composite Nonmetallic Materials in Sulfuric & Phos Acid Facilities
Use of Composite Nonmetallic Materials in Sulfuric & Phos Acid Facilities
Michael Yee , Richard Taraborelli - RTConsultants

Most sulfuric and phosphoric acid plants utilize extensive nonmetallic solution in processing units. In order to address these harsh chemical environments, specific corrosion engineering and materials needs must be specified and applied correctly to prevent operational issues.
Conventional FRP (Fiber reinforced plastics), rubber linings, and acid brick towers are commonly used with success in these environments. This paper will discuss the use of composite nonmetallic materials commonly used in sulfuric and phosphoric acid facilities. In addition, the paper will go into case studies and lessons learned from successful projects covering the importance of inspection and quality assurance for reliable service life.

Last updated: 2017-05-05