Clearwater Index


1977 - 2010

Please note, the index is currently under revision

Please Note: AIChE does not maintain an archive of past papers, please contact the authors for copies.

1. Catalysts 9.Material Handling 17. Rock Grinding
2. Clarification 10. Materials of Construction 18. Safety
3. Energy 11. Mining & Beneficiation 19. Scrubbing
4. Environmental 12. Miscellaneous 20. Sulfuric Acid
5. Evaporation 13. Phosacid Filtration 21. Water Treatment
6. Granulation 14. Phosphate General 22. Mixers
7. Gypsum 15. Phosphoric Acid 23.
8. Instrumentation and Control 16.Pumps 24. Workshops

This index was initially prepared by Don Chamberlain and has been updated by Neil Greenwood, Randy Charlot, Cheryl VanArsdall, Bill Tinley, Jennifer Stoudt and Robert Andrew.

Last updated: 2015-08-11 by Theresa Rowe

1. Catalysts
Paper Title Authors Date
80.2.3 A Modest Attempt to Understand Something About CatalystsHoflund, Woodson1980
81.1.4 Industrial Experience with Topsoe Sulfuric Acid Catalyst VK38AXAlbjerg1981
84.2.1 Sulfuric Acid Catalyst - State of the Art Topsoe1984
95.2.5 Catalyst Comparison Friedman1995
01.2.1 Catalyst Sizes and Shapes, Pros and ConsPolk2001
07.2.2Using Super Cesium Catalyst to Increase Sulfuric Acid Production Clark, Horne 2007
08.2.5Production of synthetic fuel hydrocarbons from biomass using the Prado- Wolan Fischer-Tropsch Process Prado, Wolan 2008
09.2.6An Integrated Approach to the preparation of effective Catalyst for Biomass-to-Liquid (BTL) process Gardezi, Wolan, Joseph 2009
10.1.8 Technology Development for the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis: Efficient Conversion of Biomass to Liquid Hydrocarbons Gardezi, Wolan, Joseph 2010
10.2.7 Low Temperature SO2 Oxidation Catalyst Srinivas 2010

2. Clarification
Paper Title Authors Date
77.2.7 Basics of Clarification Bowersox1977
78.1.2 Lamella Gravity Settlers in the Phosphate Industry: 5 Years LaterFreeman1978
81.1.5 Large Diameter Thickeners in the Phosphate IndustryBowersox, Klaer1981
81.2.2 Use of Thickeners in Liming Stations Brumfield1981
85.1.1 Coagulation and Flocculation in the Mining and Chemical Industry Moss1985
88.2.3 Centrifuge Safety as it Applied to High Speed Disc Machines Fett1988

3. Energy
Paper Title Authors Date
77.1.8 Energy Conservation in a Phosphate ComplexWalsh1977
78.2.1 Industrial Energy Conservation - U.S. Department of Energy ViewsRossmeissel1978
78.2.3 Cogeneration - What It Is and How It Can Be Used To Conserve EnergyKirmse1978
78.2.6 Grass Roots Energy Awareness - Can Engineers HelpPrado1978
78.2.7 Workshop on Grass Roots Energy Involvement - AIChE Speakers Kit on Energy Issue1978
80.2.4 University of Florida AlChE Student Energy CommitteeDotson1980
80.2.5 Alcohol as a Motor FuelCarroll1980
80.2.6 Coal Oil Mixtures - Partial Solution to Coal ConversionKirmse, 19801980
80.2.7 Energy and Florida’s Future Harvey1980
81.1.3 Economic Energy Savings in New Phosphoric Acid Plants Churchman, Martinez1981
81.2.4 Fans - Energy Saving in Evaporator Analysis Barron1981
81.2.5 Combustion and Heat Efficiency - Boiler of the Future Jerpsigan1981
82.1.1 A Retrofit Energy Enhancement Project Can Improve Your Profit Picture Shaefer1982
82.2.6 Cogeneration’s Place in a Modern Phosphoric Acid Complex Davis1982
85.2.2 Energy Recovery in Phosphate Fertilizer Manufacture - State of the Art Friedman1985
85.2.3 Evaluation of Cogeneration at Occidental Hylkema1985
86.2.6 The Variable Benefits of CogenerationDavis, Thompson 1986
88.2.2 Coal and Its Use in Drying in the Phosphate Industry Brashears, Mollick1988
90.1.5 Application of BSF Technology CTC3 to a Phosphate Fertilizer Complex Friedman, Bushea, Seeling, Sierra1990
01.2.4 Energy and Environment Issues as a Business Opportunity Bhattacharjee2001
04.2.5 Improved Compressed Air System Performance Laine2004
05.1.2 Energy and Environmental Issues in Fertilizer Industry: Revisited Bhattacharjee 2005
07.1.5Energy-Mix” for Sustainable Environment in View of Fertilizer/Agricultural/Utility Industries Bhattacharjee 2007
07.1.7Overview of the Fuel Ethanol Industry in the U.S. and the Search for the Holy Grail of Ethanol Hauck 2007
08.2.2Relocating a TG Alexander 2008
08.2.3Alternative Fuel Market Growth Fundamentals Harrison 2008
09.1.3‘Energy-Mix’ for Sustainable Environment in View of Fertilizer/Agriculture/Utility Industries – Revisited Bhattacharjee 2009
10.1.3 Cost Optimized Pumping in the Phosphate Industry Coffin 2010

4. Environmental
Paper Title Authors Date
92.1.1 Use of Computer Models for Risk Assessment of Accidental Releases Under Title III, CAA AmendmentJohn1992
94.2.1 Responsible Treatment of Solid Wastes by Incineration Kendron1994
94.2.3 Stormwater ManagementBurgess1994
94.2.4 Remote Optical Sensing for HF Emissions Spellicy1994
94.2.5 Clean Air Act: Title V Impacts Baxter1994
95.2.3 Computer Modeling in Design and Management of Industrial Storm Water Systems Dombroski, Guida1995
97.2.7 Continuous Monitoring for the Millennium Baxter1997
06.1.7Continuous Ion Exchange for Fertilizer & Phosphate ApplicationsDennis2006
09.2.2 Integrated Chemical Precipitation and Ultrafiltration Treatment of Wastewater for Zero Liquid Discharge Aguinaldo 2009
09.2.5 APPROACHING SUSTAINABILITY - An Engineer's Perspective Jennings 2009

5. Evaporation
Paper Title Authors Date
78.1.1 Double Effect Evaporation of Crude Phosphoric Acid Kleinman1978
79.1.1 Preliminary Sizing of Phosphoric Acid Evaporators Easley1979
80.1.4 Phosphoric Acid Evaporator Bottleneck - Causes and Cures Wing1980
82.2.3 Phosphoric Acid Concentration Using Low Grade Energy Sarratt1982
84.1.5 Phosphoric Acid Evaporation Process Improvements Johnson, Moyer1984
84.2.5 Performance Comparison of Heat Exchangers Used in Phosphoric Acid Evaporation Miknas1984
92.1.6 Fluidized Bed Heat Exchanger Prevents Sealing in the P2O5 - Evaporator Meier1992
96.1.6 Improvements in the Phosphoric Acid Concentration Process in the Presence of Surfactants Kopyleva1996
97.1.3 Guidelines for Optimizing Graphite Evaporator Efficiency Becherer1997
97.1.6 Improving Evaporator Efficiency by Controlling Scale Formation Sutherland, Pillai1997
97.2.5 Carbon Fibre Reinforced Graphite Tubes in Phosphoric Acid Evaporation Meier1997
98.2.5 Guides for Graphite Heat Exchanger Bid Evaluation Becherer1998
01.1.2 Metallic Heaters for Phosphoric Acid Evaporation Tersmeden, Nicolio2001
04.1.5a Carbon Fiber Wrapped Tubes for Graphite Heat Exchangers Bernard2004
05.2.7 Compact Heat Exchangers in the Phosphate Industry - An Update Haslego2005
06.1.4 Pilot Plant studies on reaction volume and part #2 expansion of the Uberaba complex by the addition of two evaporatorsSmith, Tomaz2006

6. Granulation
Paper Title Authors Date
77.1.7 On-Steam Ammonia Analyzer at Agrico DAP Plant Clevenger1977
82.1.3 Drying of DAP in Theory and Practice Nogueira1982
83.1.4 Design Considerations in a 115 TPH DAP Plant Houghtaling, Margiotti1983
85.1.2 Low Recycle DAP Process Marzo, Reunidas1985
85.1.3 A Computer Model for Determining the Grade of DAP from Phosphoric Acid Analysis Houik1985
85.2.5 The Process Design of Ammonia Vaporizers Utilizing Low Level Heat Sources in Lieu of Steam Nogueira1985
86.1.6 Powdered or Granular DAP: The Use of Florida Acid in a Pipe Reactor Marzo, Lopez1986
86.1.7 Granulation Plant ModificationsLeyshon, Moon, Waters 1986
87.1.5 DAP Pipe Reactor Achorn, Paulson1987
87.2.4 MAP Based on 16-20-0 ProductionNogueira, Choi1987
88.1.7 Diammonium Phosphate QualityAchorn, Lloyd, Scheib1988
89.1.8 MAP Manufacture Using the Pipe Reactor Development Leyshon, Day1989
89.2.8 Performance of Rotary Coolers in Granular Fertilizer Plants Nogueira1989
92.2.7 Preliminary Sizing of Fertilizer Granulating Equipment Easely1992
93.2.4 Bulk Flow Heat ExchangerJordison1993
93.2.5 DAP/MAP Plant Expansion at Farmland Hydro, L.P. Margiotti1993
94.1.2 Manufacture of Lower Grade DAP/MAP for Domestic Bulk Blending Leyshon, Bauman1994
95.1.4 Cooling Map with a Bulk Flow Heat Exchanger at Fosfertil Louriero, Forniciov1995
95.1.7 Granular Fertilizer CoolersPollock, Leon1995
99.1.1 Granulation Plant Design Options Ivell1999
99.1.3 The Design and Startup of a 1MM Tonnes per Year NPK/DAP Plant Using a Pipe Reactor Smith, Ward1999
99.1.4 Apparatus and Method for Cooling a Granular Material Using Ambient Air- "The Rotary Vertical Cooler" Cox, Tran1999
99.1.7 Upgrade Schemes for Granulation Plants Danos1999
03.1.7 Energy Saving Options in Granulation Plants Snyder, Walters2003
05.1.1 Cost Reduction in the Phosphate Granulated Fertilizer Oriduction using Alternative Neutralization Agents Instead of Ammonia (NH3) for Control of the Acidity Goncalves da Silva2005
08.1.7DAP Revamp at Fauji Fertilizer Bin-Quasin LimitedWaters, Mirza, Zuberi2008
09.1.7Full Scale Pilot Plant Testing Confirms Wastewater Sludge Process Weber, Leon 2009
10.2.8 DAP Optimization Tunks 2010

Last updated: 2015-08-17 by Theresa Rowe

7. Gypsum
Paper Title Authors Date
77.1.1Gypsum Stacking TechnologyWissa1977
85.2.4Phosphogypsum PurificationPalmer1985
86.2.4Performance of Hemihydrate Phosphogypsum in Road ConstructionAkly1986
87.2.5Phosphogypsum RecycleKendron, Marten, Lloyd1987
88.1.3Is Gypsum Decomposition Commercially Ready Now?Louder, Siberberg1988
89.1.6DMC/FIPR Phosphogypsum Process (Aggregate Demonstration Unit)Rossiter, Lloyd1989
94.2.2Gypsum Stack ExpansionCameron1994
96.1.7Palm & Hartig pH ProcessHoughtaling1996
96.1.8Sinkhole in Gyp StackCameron1996
07.1.3Stack Free by 53 Not a Chance in -----Well!!! Llyod, Stana2007

8. Instrumentation & Control
Paper Title Authors Date
86.2.5On-Line Determination of Sulfate and Liquid Density in the Oxy Hemihydrate TM ProcessMurdock1986
88.2.6Expert Systems: What Are They and How Should This New Technology Be Applied?Kirmse1988
89.1.3Conversion of Phosphoric Acid Plant Controls to a Distributed Control SystemBegue1989
89.2.9Statistical Process ImprovementKirmse1989
00.1.5A Model Project: Continuing Advances in 3D CADD Systems, SF Phosphates Filtration and Evaporation Expansion ProjectTraum, Antila, Skorcz, Osborne2000
00.2.2Modeling Urea Processes- a New Thermodynamic Model and Software Integration ParadigmSatyro, Li, Argawal, Santollani2000
00.2.6Granulation Plant Simulation using Aspen PlusSinden, Walters, Mathias, Mendez2000
03.2.3Spreadsheet Automation for EngineersFerking2003
05.1.6On-line Measurements at Phosphate Chemical Pants Simmons2005

9. Material Handling
Paper Title Authors Date
79.1.3The Importance of Vibrated Bin Dischargers and Feeders to the Phosphate IndustryFormicola1979
01.1.1Polymer Linings and Wall Friction Effects on the Flow of Bulk Solids From Bins and HoppersMargolies, Marinelli2001
01.2.5Vibratory Materials Processing Equipment- a PrimerPorter2001
03.2.7Radical Innovations in Mineral Process SimulationHerst, Potapov2003
06.2.7The proper way to prepare equipment specifications for equipment purchasesLouie2006
08.1.8Solids HandlingJohanson2008

10. Materials of Construction
Paper Title Authors Date
77.1.3Corrosivity of Wet Process Phosphoric AcidGrocki1977
77.1.6Rupture of 3,000 Tons H2SO4 Storage TankFuters1977
79.1.2Sandvik Sanicaro 28 - A High Alloy Special Steel for Heat Exchanger in Phosphoric Acid PlantsBernhardsson, Osterholm1979
79.2.2Advancement of Impervious Graphite/Silicon Carbide Material for Use in Severe Corrosive and Abrasive ApplicationsSmerek, Graves1979
82.1.2Sandvik Sanicaro 28 - Special Alloy for All-Around Use in Phosphoric Acid PlantBergluna1982
87.1.7New Alloys for Phosphoric Acid ServiceAgarwal1987
88.1.6Applications for Stainless Steels in Phosphoric Acid PlantAudouard1988
89.2.5Corrosion in Boiler Water Systems 1989
90.1.3High Alloy Evaluation for Wet Process Phosphoric Acid Production Service, Hasteloy Alloy G-30 and Ultimet AlloyNickerson1990
90.2.4Solving Corrosion Problems in Wet Process Phosphoric Acid PlantsSchillmoller, Bhattacharjee1990
93.1.1A New Alloy for Phosphoric Acid SlurriesWalker1993
93.1.4Sulfuric Acid Storage Tank CorrosionSarratt, Vanderland, Krentz1993
93.2.3Principles of Alloy Design for Corrosion and Wear ServicesAsphahani, Avery, Crooke, Reid, Oglesby, Shiver1993
94.1.6New Nickel Alloy for High Temperatures H2SO4Omberg, Crook1994
95.2.2Stainless Steel Converter Performance - 10 Years LaterShaw, Sarratt1995
96.1.5Development of Corrosion Resistant White Irons for use in Phos-acid ServiceAddie1996
96.2.4Corrosion Resistant Alloys in Sulfuric AcidHorne, Bhambri1996
98.2.4Extend Lifetime of Rubber LiningMeier1998
99.1.2Experience with Nicofer 3127hMo (Alloy 31) in Phos-Acid PlantsWhite, Jallouli, Moustaqsa, Agarwal1999
99.2.3Developments in Sulphuric Acid Resistant Metal, "Saramet" TechnologyHarding1999
99.2.6Sulfuric Acid CorrosionMcCabe1999
99.2.8Selection of Stainless Steel for Use in Phosphoric Acid Plants, New Trends and ExperiencesAodouard, Barloy, Shelton1999
00.1.2Linings for Phosphoric Acid PlantsMeier2000
01.1.7Corrosion Resistant Materials for Acid Storage in the Phosphoric Acid IndustryAudouard, Dernoncourt, Peultier, Barloy2001
03.1.3Overall Corrosion Protection in a Phosphoric Acid PlantMeier2003
03.1.4The Development of a New Nickel Alloy for Use in Wet Process Phosphoric Acid EvaporatorsCrook, Caruso, Reid2003
03.1.5Duplex Stainless Steel with Superior Erosion-Corrosion Performance Utilized in Pumping Phosphoric AcidCalboreanu2003
04.1.1Phosphoric Acid Production: Corrosion Problems-Alloys-Solutions-Case HistoriesAgarwal2004
04.2.6Materilas for H2SO4 Packed TowersCameron, Hodgson, Price2004
04.2.7ZeCor(tm) Acid Coolers, The Value PropositionBhambri2004
06.2.5Gore Universal Pipe Gasket and its progress within the chemical industry Ganatra 2006
07.2.3Engineered ZeCor® Equipment for Sulfuric Acid Service Richardson, Spence, Horne 2007
08.1.5Leak Proof Flange Joints Ganatra 2008
08.1.6The Use of Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastic (FRP) in Phosphate Fertilizer and Sulfuric Acid Processes Kelly 2008
09.1.8The Corrosion Resistance of Cast and Wrought Hastelloy C is 70% Enhanced When Removing the Unwanted Complex Carbides from Their Microstructure Calboreanu 2009
10.2.6 Different FRP Resin Chemistries for Different Chemical Environments Kelley 2010

11. Mining & Beneficiation
Paper Title Authors Date
77.1.4Florida Phosphate Rock Reserve - Geology Quality and Mining TimetableFountain1977
77.2.1High Intensity, High Gradient Magnetic Separation as a New Process ToolIannicelli1977
79.2.3High Rate Thickening of Phosphate Slimes Smith1979
81.2.1Testing a New Method for Treatment of Slimes in the Phosphate IndustryPichon, Clark1981
84.2.2Field Evaluation of a Rotary Trommel Process for Dewatering Phosphatic ClaysMurdock1984
87.1.3Phosphate Rock - Technological and Economical ClassificationVenturino, Monaldi, Cocquio1987
89.1.2New Trends in Phosphate BeneficiationKallioneu, Pennanen1989
96.2.1Continuous Weigh & Blending Fundamentals for the Phos Rock IndustryPorter1996
98.2.3Integrating Control of Flocculant Delivery in Phosphatic Clay Thickening CircuitsNygren, Gutierrez1998
99.1.5Flotation Process for Carbonate RemovalGruber1999
07.1.6Field Tests of LIBS in the Phosphate Industry , Part 2 Keating, Stana 2007
10.1.7 Study for Disc Filter Cloths Debottlenecking & Flotaion Plant Improvements Dionne 2010

12. Miscellaneous
Paper Title Authors Date
77.2.3Use of Direct Flame After Burner in the Destruction of Trace Toxic SubstancesZegal1977
78.2.2Oleo Resin Enhancement in the Living Pine Tree - An alternative Source of Energy and Replacement for Petroleum DerivativeJoyce1978
78.2.4Energy Analysis of a Running Chemical ReactorBiery1978
79.1.4The First Phosphate Chemical Plant EISAtwood1979
79.2.5Economics of Treating Slash Pines with Paraquat to Increase Oleoresin ContentReynolds1979
79.2.6Engineering Problems Encountered in the Recovery of Paper Mill By-ProductsJoyce1979
79.2.7Chemical Processing of Group III-IV Semiconductor CompoundsAnderson1979
80.1.7Chemical Operator and Maintenance Safe Job Performance TrainingPankoff, Myrick1980
80.2.2Material and Energy Balances on a RunnerBiery, Springer1980
82.2.1Polymer Applications in Selected ProcessesClemmer1982
82.2.3Correlation and Prediction of Phase Equilibria in Mixtures Containing Supercritical ComponentsCotterman1981
82.2.4Linear Programming: An Application in the Florida Phosphate IndustryTyner1982
82.2.5Wood Chemicals, A Florida IndustryPrado1982
83.2.2Chemical Engineering Process in Modern Coal - Fired Power PlantsByrnes, Peterson, Wilborn, Blum1983
84.2.4Poly Generation at J.F. Kennedy Space CenterManfredi, Gutkowski1984
84.2.6Claims Risk Management - What is it?Edwards1984
85.1.5Thermodynamic Bounds on Citrate Soluble P2O5 LossesBusot, Griffin1985
85.1.6Some Aspects of Process Design of Continuous CrystallizersRamanarayannan1985
85.2.6Computer Aided Chemical Engineering DesignSunol1985
86.2.1Chelated Iron Chemistry for H2S Oxidation Comes of AgeHardison1986
86.2.3Popular PC Software Applied to Chemical EngineeringSchneider1986
86.2.7Residence Time Distribution Functions for Tubular Reactors in Turbulent FlowLinsley1986
87.1.2Environmental Monitoring and Control at New WalesWiggins, Girardin1987
87.1.6Non-Conventional Job Opportunities for Chemical EngineersJohn1987
87.2.1Hazardous Waste in FloridaRiggenbach1987
87.2.2Experience in Implementing and Upgrading a Microcomputer Aided Drafting SystemClemente1987
88.2.4Pilot Plants - Uses and ApplicationsDrew, Prado, Prado1988
89.1.4Advanced Control StrategiesMunger1989
89.2.3Hazardous Waste Minimization or the Strategy of the CorkStebbins1989
90.1.1Safety Values in Process Plants - Design, Operation, Maintenance and ASME CodeOlivier1990
90.2.3Monolithic Linings and Coatings for Secondary ContainmentHazen1990
90.2.7Improving a Blending Process by Continuously Displaying and/or Controlling Ingredients by Weight and Flow RatesBerger1990
91.1.3Monolithic Linings and Coatings for Secondary Containment StructuresHazen1991
91.1.6Spill and Release ReportingStebbins1991
91.2.1Solid Waste Recycling in FloridaPrado & Prado1991
91.2.3Converter Replaced in 18 DaysLudke, Winkeceo1991
91.2.4Formal Operability and Hazard Analysis as Applied to a Modern Sulfuric Acid PlantFriedman1991
92.1.4The Main Pass Sulfur ProjectD’Aquin1992
93.1.2Chemical Engineering Plant Design Course at Florida TechFessenden, Rocha, Saffer1993
93.2.1Preparation of Preliminary Capital Cost EstimatesPrado1993
95.1.6Vacuum Pumps: Why do They Lose Capacity?Pappalardo, Davenport1995
95.2.4Improved Method for Sizing Reactor Relief SystemsRichter, Turner1995
95.2.6Fast Track! - How To Move a Project FastPrado, Cerrito1995
95.2.7Re-Engineering the Engineering Functions to Remain CompetitiveNaberhaus, Waters1995
96.1.3The Use of Personal Computers in the Phosphate IndustryLazanowski, Prado1996
97.2.4Manufacturing Information Technology and Best Manufacturing Practices in the Fertilizer Industry Perino1997
00.1.3A Practical Guide to Optimizing Pulse Jet Dust Collector PerformanceApplewhite, Klimczak2000
00.2.1Heat Transfer TechnologyBlack2000
01.1.3The Science and Application Technologies for LimeIngram, Thompson2001
01.2.3Can a Little Altruism Enhance an Engineer's Job Satisfaction?Wing2001
05.1.4An Overview of the High-Tech Approach to Nutrient Management at Houghtaling Farms Houghtaling2005
05.1.8New Methods for Delivery of Cancer Fighting DrugsJaroszeski2005
06.1.8Engineering Approaches to Cardiovascular Disease: Development of Markers of Heart Valve Disease Severity and Progression Vanauker2006
08.1.1Uranium Recovery From Phosphoric Acid Royster, Guida, Stana2008
09.2.4 PegasusTSI 3D Data Model Royster, Lee 2009
09.2.8 Engineering Challenges for the Ambatovy Acid Project Vorster 2009
10.1.6 Capital Project Cost Estimation Harrison 2010

13. Phosacid Filtration
Paper Title Authors Date
77.2.2Filtration or Filter AidsAlciatore1977
79.1.6Filtration of Phosphoric Acid - A Critical Look at Filter SelectionEdwards, Alter1979
80.2.1Phosphoric Acid Purification by FiltrationFarrell, Myrick1980
81.1.6Ucego Filters in Phosphoric Acid ProductionLittle1981
86.1.1Unique Designs for Horizontal Belt Type FiltersWebber1986
87.2.3Phosphoric Acid Filtration - A Critical Look at Filter SelectionEdwards1987
88.2.1Preliminary Sizing of Phosphoric Acid FiltersEasely1988
89.1.7How to Improve the Performance and Output of Your Tilting Pan Filter Incorporating Proven Developments from Bird/PrayonLindgren, Smith, Kurowsky1989
89.2.2The Effect of Polymeric Additives on Gypsum FiltrationMougil, Taylor1989
89.2.6Change of the Filtration CircuitBarloy1989
90.1.6IMC Fertilizer Filter Pan ProjectVaughn1990
94.1.5New Bird “EX-LV” Timing Crown at CF IndustriesCharlot, Burt1994
97.1.2Improvement of Phosphogypsum Filtration using Polymeric AdditivesZhu, Moudgil, El-Shall1997
97.1.7Improved Reactor Control and Increased Filtration Capacity by Upgrading Filtration Equipment in a Phosphoric Acid PlantPlessis, Kurowski1997
98.1.7Crystal Habit Modifiers for Enhanced Filtration of PhoshogypsumEl-Shall, Abdel Aal, Moudgil1998
99.1.8Increasing P2O5 Production by Retrofitting a Tilting Pan Filter with a UCEGO FilterBerberat1999
00.1.8Belt Filters, a Review of Phosphoric Acid ApplicationsBerberat, Bhattacharjee2000
01.1.5What's New in Tilting-Pan Filters?Kurowski2001
03.1.1Economical Replacement of Existing Filtration EquipmentBerberat, Kurowski2003
03.1.2Membrane Filtration of Phosphoric Acid ProductsStowell2003
04.1.2Polymeric filtration Aid-"A Decade of Lab and Plant ObservationsIrwin2004
04.1.8Replacement of Existing 24B PRAYON Tilting Pan Filter by a New 24-75 PRAYON TDI Tilting Pan Filter at PFI in GreecePapaconstantinou, Kurowski2004
07.1.2FIPR MonoCal WPA ProcessHebbard2007
07.1.4The Last But Not Least Development In Tilting Pan Filters part2 part3 part4 Kurowski 2007

14. Phosphate General
Paper Title Authors Date
77.1.2Laboratory and Pilot Treatment of Phosphoric Acid Waste WatersThompson1977
78.1.5Azeotropic HF Acid from Defluorinated Phosphate RockLamb1978
80.1.3Concrete Skin Gives New Life to P2O5 ReactorBogart1980
81.1.1Texasgulf’s Lee Creek Phosphate ExpansionBarrett1981
81.2.6Phosphate Economics - Past, Present and FutureClark1981
82.1.4Sulfuric Acid, Phosphoric Acid and DAP Innovations at New WalesPflaum1982
83.1.1Magnesium Removal from Phosphoric Acid by the Pembroke ProcessRushton1983
83.1.2P2O5 Loss prevention at IMC New WalesStana, Leonard1983
83.1.6Sizing of Phosphoric Acid ReactorsEasely1983
83.2.4Startup of Oxy’s New Animal Feed Grade Dical PlantSierra1983
86.1.5Can Your Phos Acid Plant Talk to You?Stana1986
87.1.4The Technology of Defoamers in Phosphoric Acid ServiceVan Orsdale1987
87.2.7Prochem Experience with Hydrofoil Impellers in Phosphoric Acid ProductionFerguson, Livingston1987
88.1.4Removal of Cationic Impurities from Phosphoric AcidMonis, Bouffard1988
88.1.5Acid Defluorination for Animal FeedPerkins1988
89.1.5The Marriage of Empirical Black Magic with High TechnologyCarnes, Stana, Bohrer1989
89.2.7Phosphoric Acid Sludge and Solids Chemistry, Particle Size, and How to Deal with ThemMyrick1989
89.1.9Potassium Phosphate Products and Its ProcessesSaradisco, Bouffard1989
90.1.4Water Management for Minimum Discharge in a Phosphate ComplexMartinez, Windham, Belle, Borsch1990
90.1.7Removal of Magnesium and Other Impurities from Phosphoric Acid via Pulsed Bed Ion Exchange - The Pembroke ProcessBarrett, Rushton1990
90.2.1High Profits from Pond WaterWeiss, Dennis1990
91.2.7Peco HF ProcessBouffard, Lloyd1991
92.1.2P2O5 Efficiency Improvements at Cargill Fertilizer, IncWeyers1992
92.1.3*"1991 - The Year of the Last Tank Battle?"Stana, Roth1992
93.1.3Water Management for Minimum Acidity in Phosphate ComplexesMartinez1993
93.2.6Phosphorus and Industry: Present Situation and Trends in EuropeSmith1993
94.1.3*Back To The Future IIIClements, Stana1994
96.1.1Process Water Management in Today’s Phosphate IndustryMay, Charlot, Edwards1996
96.2.7Update on PECO HF ProcessErickson1996
97.1.8The End of the BeginningStana1997
98.1.3Foscálcio 2700 - Dicalcium Phosphate PlantSinden, Greenwood1998
98.1.5Phosphate Testing - Raw Material Suitability and Project FeasibilitySmith1998
98.2.2PECO Fluorine Removal Process Pilot PlantNagy, Hilakos1998
99.1.6From Rock to DAP at Lower CostWing1999
99.2.7Compact Plate Heat Exchanger Applications in the Phosphate IndustryOrnberg1999
04.1.4Phosphates in Turkey, A Fresh Approach Prado2004
04.1.7Starting MAP Production at the WMCF Phosphate Complex in North East AustraliaBrown2004
04.2.8An Idea whose time has come: Gasket Standardization Ganatra2004
05.1.7Contaminant level increases in the Phosphoric acid and its impacts on MAP and TSP plants Rezende2005
06.1.2 Sustainable Fertilizer and Crop Production from an Energy Security Perspective Bhattacharjee 2006
09.1.6 MUD CHEMISTRY? An Insider Reveals the Soft Side of Phosphate Technology Wing 2009
10.1.4 Phosphates in South America: A Review Prado, Ross 2010

15. Phosphoric Acid
Paper Title Authors Date
77.1.5Chemical Processing of Low Quality Phosphate RockKouloheris1977
78.1.4An Update of the Dorrco Phosphoric Acid ProcessLeyshon1978
78.1.7Production of Wet Process Phosphoric Acid Using the Swenson Isothermal ReactorOlivier, Terrana1978
79.1.7Why Convert to the New Nissan Hemihydrate Process?Landgraf1979
80.1.5Occidental's Hemihydrate PlantsSmith, Caesar1980
83.2.3Status Report on Occidental’s Hemihydrate ProcessCaesar1983
84.1.1Rhone-Poulenc "Diplo" ProcessOrenga1984
85.1.4The Davy-Prayon High Strength Phosphoric Acid Process: Cogeneration’s Ideal PartnerEarl1985
86.1.4The Rhone-Poulenc Phosphoric Acid Process and the EnvironmentTiberghien, Prado1986
87.2.6The Diplo ProcessTiberghien, Prado1987
89.1.1Florida Phosphate Technology - 2000Wing1989
89.2.1Phosphoric Acid TechnologyGoers1989
90.1.2Improvement of Phosphoric Acid UnitsBarloy1990
90.2.2Phosphate Processing 2001Bouffard1990
90.2.5Hemihydrate Phosphoric Acid Plant Retrofits at Geismar and ChinhaeGobbitt1990
91.1.2Phosphoric Acid Technology for the NinetiesLeyshon1991
91.2.2Hemi or Hemi-di Arcadian Converts Phos Acid from Dihydrate to HemiHoughtaling, Wing1991
93.1.7Fluorine Control SystemsBouffard, Erickson1993
94.1.1Magnesium Extraction from Phosphate RockBenson1994
94.1.4Successful Rehabilitation Project for Jordon Phosphate Mines CompanySmith1994
95.1.1Wengfu Phosphate Complex: An OverviewSmith, Houghtaling1995
95.1.2JR Simplot Phos Acid Plant UpgradeHutter, Walters1995
95.1.3The Case for Converting Phos Acid Plants to HemiWing1995
95.1.5Another View of the Performance of the AQABA Phos Acid PlantEdwards1995
96.1.2Modifications to a Prayon Reaction System to Increase Capacity and CirculationSchneider1996
96.1.4Factors Affecting Recirculation Rate Choices in WPPA ProductionHebbard1996
97.1.1Phosphoric Acid Plant Design for the 21st Century - A Virtual Reality with 3D CADBelle, Pelham1997
97.1.4Prayon's Hemihydrate TechnologiesSmith1997
97.1.5Uprate of the Zimphos Phosphoric Acid Unit in ZimbabweBarloy1997
98.1.1Raytheon's Isothermal Reactor Process - Advantages and AdvancesFelice, Martinez, Hilakos1998
98.1.2Inception of The World's Largest Phosphoric Acid PlantBlythe, Jaggi1998
98.1.4Simulation of Phosphoric Acid Production by the Wet ProcessMathias, Mendez1998
98.1.6Monocal Chemistry and Phosphogypsum RadioactivityHebbard, Baumann1998
98.1.8Focus Group Evaluation of Overall P2O5 Recovery at IMC-Agrico South Pierce PlantMaisel, Hannie1998
00.1.1IMACID, a 1000 ton Phos Acid Unit in MoroccoTheys, Smith2000
00.1.4Uprate of the Agrifos Phos Acid UnitBarloy2000
00.1.7A New Chapter in Hemi-Hydrate Technology: Operating Experience from WMC-Phosphoric Acid Plant, AustraliaGobbet2000
01.1.4Review of a Phosphoric Acid Plant UpgradeEarl2001
03.1.6PCS Chooses Modular Construction for its Purified Phosphoric Acid ExpansionLeyshon2003
04.1.5bPhosphoric Acid Expansion in BrazilSmith2004
05.1.5Phosphoric Acid revamps in the Southern HemisphereSmith2005
06.1.1 Investigation of the Use of Group Contribution Methods to Estimate Physical Properties of OrganophosphatesHancock, Pozo de Fernandez2006
06.1.3The Hemi Era in Phosphoric AcidWing2006
07.1.1Food Grade Phosphoric Acid in TurkeyPrado2007
08.1.2 Ma'aden Magnesite Project Belle 2008
08.1.3 Selecting a Phosphoric Acid Process Wing 2008
09.1.2 Use of carbon fiber reinforced DIABON graphite tubes in shell and tubes phosphoric acid evaporators BERNARD 2009
09.1.9 Phosphate Plant Yield Comparisons Harrison 2009
10.1.1 Predicting the Citrate Soluble Loss of the Dihydrate Process Abutayeh, Campbell 2010
10.1.5 Money in the Bank – A process for the reduction of cooling pond acidity employing series filtration of phosphogypsum and the elimination of water soluble P2O5 losses to the gypsum stack using the closed loop cooling water concept Bouffard 2010

16. Pumps
Paper Title Authors Date
79.1.5Composite Maintenance and Operating Experience of Flash Cooler Pumps in FloridaMerkel1979
91.1.1Let There Be a PumpGudath1991
93.2.7Chemical Dosing with Metering PumpsRigg1993
01.1.6Design Principles of Flash Cooler Pumnps and Selection of MaterialsPlateus2001
03.2.2Pump Trouble-Shooting Diagnostic TechniquesAskew2003
06.2.6Calculating NPSHA in pumping - The Think Method Askew2006
07.2.1Pumps: Important Components Complex System Weinerth 2007
07.2.6How Centrifugal Pumps Pump & Airplanes Fly Askew 2007
09.2.3 Pumps - Failure Modes and Ways to Investigate the Cause Weinerth 2009
10.2.5 Sulfuric Acid: A Challenge for Materials and Sealing Systems for Centrifugal Pumps Weinerth 2010

17. Rock Grinding
Paper Title Authors Date
78.1.6Rubber Ball Mill Linings in Phosphate Grinding Applications and ExperienceMerkel1978
81.1.2Concept for Wet Grinding Using Pond WaterGalluzzo, Parish1981
83.1.5Wet Rock Grinding - Theory and PracticeBohrer1983
82.?.? Tower Mill Rock Grinding - UpdateJones1982
04.1.6Effects of Particle Size Segregation on Solids Handling and Product Quality Royal, Purutyan2004

18. Safety
Paper Title Authors Date
92.1.5Sudden Catastrophic Failure of a Rubber-Lined Phosphoric Acid TankHearn, Konopnicki1992
93.2.2Process Safety Analysis in a Phosphate PlantSabatino1993
00.1.6Challenges in Design and Construction of the Secondary Containment for Ammonia Storage in Port SuttonOllia, Dougherty2000
01.2.2The Evolution of an EHS Culture at CF Industries Manufacturing Plants and Distribution FacilitiesBunch2001
04.2.3HAZOP......Is That All There Is? Ollia, Collins2004
07.2.7Industrial Pipeline Integrity Management & Remote Polyurea Pipe Lining Systems Saputo 2007
10.2.3 Expanded Role for Dust Collection in the 21st Century Kroeger 2010

19. Scrubbing
Paper Title Authors Date
77.2.5Application of Wet Scrubber Devices in the Fertilizer IndustryPodhorski1977
79.2.4Control of Emissions from Phosphate Dryers and Calciners with High Performance Wet ScrubbersYankura1979
80.1.2Design and Selection of Scrubbers for Granulation PlantsHansen, Danos1980
91.2.6Phosphate Plant ScrubbersHansen1991
93.1.6Safer and Quick Access to Mist EliminatorsHennessey, Van Dessel1993
98.2.1Recent Developments in Phosphate Fertilizer Scrubber TechnologyDerenthal, Schott, Reyes1998
05.2.1Split Flow Cold Gas Exchanger Design and Improved Performance Cooper, Guenkel, Orlando2005
06.2.1Presentation of Data Relative to R&D Testing to Determine Incremental Performance Upgrades of FLEXIFIBER Mist EleminatorsBoles, Cusack2006
07.2.4 LUREC™ – A milestone towards economic smelter acid plant operation Daum 2007
07.2.5 The Single Absorption – Scrubbing Sulfuric Acid Process Friedman 2007
09.2.1 Reducing Sulfuric Acid Plant SO2 Emissions With The CANSOLV® SO2 Scrubbing System Léveillé, Ryan 2009

20. Sulfuric Acid
Paper Title Authors Date
78.1.3Development of the Contract Sulfuric Acid Process in the United StatesRickhoff1978
78.2.5Energy Recovery from Sulfuric Acid PlantBhaga, Miller1978
79.2.1A New Approach to Sulfuric Acid CoolingSpecht, McDonnell1979
80.1.1Sulfuric Acid Plants for the 1980’sCameron1980
80.1.6Sulfuric Acid - The Energy SourceFriedman1980
82.1.5Plant Expansion and Modification - Gardinier No. 7 Sulfuric Acid PlantCameron1982
82.2.2Latest Improvement in Sulfur Spray NozzlesRiano1982
84.1.2Operation and Performance of Stainless Steel ConverterShaw1984
86.1.2Texasgulf’s Newest Sulfuric Acid Plant - 3300 STPDPeng1986
86.1.3Modifying a Sulfuric Acid Plant on a Limited Budget, 200 STPD Capacity for $150,000Fernandez1986
87.1.1Improvements in Sulfuric Acid Plant TechnologyCameron, Leva, Sarratt1987
88.1.1New Sulfuric Acid Heat Recovery TechnologySephutis1988
88.1.2The Sulfuric Acid Plant: Recent Advances - Review and AnalysisFriedman1988
91.1.4Smart Sulfuric Acid Distribution in Packed TowersCameron1991
91.1.5Improved Mist Eliminators for Dry TowersHennessey1991
91.2.5Improved Fiber Bed Mist Eliminators for Sulfuric Acid Distribution in Packed TowersKalius1991
92.2.1The Lurgi Energy Recovery SystemLeudike, Kreuser1992
92.2.2IMC Fertilizer Sulfuric Acid Plant Heat Recovery SystemSchafer, Carnes1992
92.2.3Unique Dish Bottom Design Extends Sulfuric Acid Pump Tank LifeMcAdams1992
92.2.4New Innovations of Sulfur GunsDavis, Riano1992
92.2.5SO2 Emissions Reductions in Sulfuric Acid PlantsVavere, Horne1992
93.1.5Texasgulf’s Heat Recovery System Construction and StartupPaulson1993
96.2.3The Evolution of the Rapid Service Sulfur GunRiano, Davis1996
96.2.5Structured Packing for the Sulfuric Acid PlantSavage1996
97.2.2Incidents in Sulfuric Acid Plants - What Can We Learn?Friedman1997
97.2.3Monarch HRS Retrofit - A Technology UpdateRandolph, Walser, Horne1997
97.2.6Sulfuric Acid Plant Upgrading at Mexicana De CobreBhaga, Cameron, Castillo1997
98.2.6Advances in Sulfuric Acid Plant Equipment and ProcessesPuricelli, Burk, Schenpf, Bhambri, Ziebold1998
98.2.7Concentric Fiber Bed Filter AssembliesBrookman1998
98.2.8Improving Furnace-Boiler Systems in Sulfuric Acid PlantsCameron, Bhaga1998
99.2.1Analysis of Recent Advances in Sulfuric Acid Plant Systems and DesignsFriedman1999
99.2.2The World's Largest Sulphuric Acid Plant...For Now!Randolph1999
99.2.4The Collapsing Operating Envelope of the Modern Sulfuric Acid PlantDavis1999
99.2.5Initial Vapor Distributioin in Sulfuric Acid TowersBlischak1999
00.2.3A Sulfuric Acid Process With Near Zero SO2 EmissionsJaeger, Fattinger, Hamel2000
00.2.4Design, Construction, and Commissioning of the World's Largest Smelter Acid PlantLeudtke, Daum2000
00.2.5Packed Towers in Sulfuric Acid PlantsCameron, Guenkel2000
00.2.7Review of 15 Years Experience in the Sulfuric Acid BusinessKodeda, Berglund2000
00.2.8The State of Sulfuric Acid TechnologyPuricelli, Randolph, Fell2000
01.2.6Sizing Packed TowersCameron, Guenkel2001
01.2.7A Performance Report on New TechnologiesPuricelli, Bhambri, Weiss, Horne2001
03.2.1Improving Sulfuric Acid Plant PerformancePuricelli, Weiss, Horne2003
03.2.5Sulfuric Acid Plant Convertor Replacement Project at JR SimplotSternberg, Hutter, Cocos, Horne2003
03.2.6When Gas Heat Exchangers Become a Headache for the Operation of a Sulfuric Acid PlantJurado2003
04.2.1Oxygen Enrichment to Boost Sulfuric Acid Miller2004
04.2.2Engineering Package Contracts-A Growing Trend in Sulfuric Acid Plant Propirtary Equipment Sales Fleck, Hamsom2004
05.2.2Two New INNOVATIONS in FIBER BED TECHNOLOGY from CECO Filters that Offer Improved Efficiency, Enhanced Performance and Longevity Lee2005
05.2.3New Brink Fiberbed Technology Ziebold, Azwell2005
05.2.4Resources and Information Sources for the Sulphuric Acid IndustryLouie2005
05.2.5Sulfuric Acid - Where has it Gone? L. Friedman, S. Friedman2005
05.2.6Latest development in Sulphuric Acid Plants based on Sulphur Combustion Bartlett, rieder2005
06.2.2Sulfuric Acid Heat Refcovery Now More Than EverMECS2006
06.2.3Drying Tower Mist Eliminator Selection GuideFabian, Boles2006
06.2.4Debottlenecking Mist Eliminator Installations in Sulfuric Acid PlantsAzwell, Ziebold2006
08.2.1Sulfuric AcidAzwell, Verner-Porter2008
08.2.7History of Sulfuric Acid Friedman2008
08.2.8Engineered Packing System for Acid Contact Towers Price, Hodgson, Duvall2008
09.1.1Technologies for the Design and Operation of Phosphate Fertilizer & Sulfuric Acid Plants Mendez, Cernik, Pinjala, Bhat2009
09.2.7Fiberglass Reinforced Plastics Applications in Gas Cleaning Systems of Sulfuric Acid Plants Garrett,Recar, Kelley 2009
09.2.9 Sulphuric Acid Quality – It all starts in the beginning Storch 2009
10.2.1 The Best Data Wins Freeman 2010
10.2.2 PCS Phosphate's New 4500 STPD Sulfuric Acid Plant in Aurora,NC Baker, Fell 2010
10.2.4 Reducing Emissons and Meeting Marketplace Needs - A Review of a Plant Modification Davis 2010

21. Water Treatment
Paper Title Authors Date
85.2.1Corrosion Control in Condensate SystemsHerman, Delavan1985
86.2.2Recovery from Low pH Excursions in Cooling Water SystemsFuller, Delavan1986
88.2.5Reverse Osmosis Roughing DemineralizationWethern1988
89.2.4The Economics of Ion-Exchange RebedsGottlieb1989
92.2.6Reverse Osmosis Project in the Phosphate IndustryCarnes, Harrison1992
95.2.1How to Improve LA Water’s Demineralizer SystemsKnorr1995
96.2.2Automated Water Treatment Systems for the Phosphate IndustryNygren, Pillai, Sutherland1996
96.2.6Response to Water Quality Crisis at New WalesWiggins1996
97.2.1Automation of Open Recirculating Cooling SystemsBeer1997
03.2.4Lime the Phosphate Industry's Friend when That Friend is in NeedCox2003
05.1.3Mobile Wastewater Treatment Helps Remediate Highly Concentrated Acidic Process Water at Piney Point Fertilizer Plant, Florida Perpich2005
06.1.6Treatment of Acidic Industrial Wastewaters using LowHRO TechnologyNagghappan, Blumenschein, Banerjee, van Aartsen2006
09.1.4The Treatment of Phosphate Mining Pond Water Bossler2009
09.1.5 Hydrates for Gypsum Stack Water Purification Osegovic2009
10.1.2 Multi-Stage Membrane Treatment Palnt for Fertilizer manufacturing Wastewater Beckingham, Dyke 2010

22. Mixers
Paper Title Authors Date
82.1.6Recent Developments in Fluid Mixing in Phosphoric Acid Manufacturing Processes Oldshue1982
83.2.5Jet Injection MixingMohn1983
90.2.6Design Guidelines for Static Mixing Units Baker1990
04.1.3Is There a Role for Geometric Similarity in the Scale Up of Industrial Impeller Fluid MixersOldshue2004
05.2.8Process Intensification: How Much Power Can Be Put Into an Impeller Type Mixer Oldshue2005
06.1.5FLUENT Simulations Schrevens2006
06.2.8How to Specify mixers for solids suspension Oldshue2006

23. TBD

24. Workshops
Paper Title Authors Date
09.w.1George Miller - Aker Solutuions 2009
09.w.2Jim Dougherty - Mosaic 2009
09.w.3Pete Earnest - SATCO 2009
09.w.4Jeff Kitchen - Tank Engineering & Management 2009